The Form of Present Perfect
I/you/we/they + have/ ‘ve + Past Participle (V3).
He/she/it + has/ ‘s + Past Participle (V3).
I have visited many countries
I don’t know why but she has just left suddenly!
I/you/we/they + have not/ haven’t + Past Participle (V3).
He/she/it + has not/ hasn’t + Past Participle (V3).
I think they haven’t married yet.
He hasn’t started to work yet.
Have + I/you/we/they + Past Participle?
Has + he/she/it + Past Participle?
Have you ever been to a music festival? Yes, I have/ No, I haven’t
Has he prepared the presentation yet? Yes, he has/ No. he hasn’t
❗Note that regular past participles are the same verb form as past simple! ( Add -ed to the end of the verb)❗
When to Use the Present Perfect:
We use Present Perfect for experiences that happened sometime before now and have a relationship with the present. We don’t specify when it happened because it is not important.
She has studied a lot for the final exam.
They have participated in a speech of the president.
We use Past Simple when we say the exact time.
She took the exam yesterday.
They took off last week.
Common Words to Use with Present Perfect
“Already, Just, Yet, For, Since, Ever, Never”
“ALREADY” means something has happened sooner than we expected.
The exam has already started. You cannot get in now.
“JUST” means a short time ago.
I have just seen them arguing.
“YET” is used only in questions and negatives sentences. It means something is expected to happen.
Have you started to work on your project yet?
He hasn’t done any preparation yet.
“FOR” is to use for talking about periods of time.
They have lived together for 10 years.
The baby has cried for ages
“SINCE” is to use for talking about a specific time.
They have lived together since 2008
The baby has cried since the morning.
“EVER” is used in questions. It means a time before now.
Have you ever been abroad?
HAs he ever helped you clean the house?
“NEVER” is used in negative statements and it means at no time before now
I have never gone skateboarding.
We have never traveled abroad with my mother.